Have you heard of the movement to promote ‘plain language’? Plain language is a beautiful goal and its concepts are useful for all writers, including academics. Get started with these resources.
In this article: What plain language is | Principles of plain language | Resources
Plain language is described as communication whose
… wording, structure, and design are so clear that the intended audience can easily find what they need, understand what they find, and use that information.Source: International Plain Language Federation
Promoting plain language has its roots in the attempt to make legal language–which is notoriously difficult to understand–comprehensible to the layperson.
But it’s easy to see how it can apply to academic writing–especially if you’re repackaging your academic work for a wider audience.
Which do you find easier to read:
It establishes empirically and advances the hypothesis that theological characteristics that were facilitative of the birth and persistence of fundamental cultural traits instigated the evolution of compatible linguistic traits that have nurtured and augmented the dissemination and the intergenerational transference of these cultural traits over the expanse of human history.1
… or …
We empirically show that certain features of religion helped unique cultural traits to emerge within populations. Those cultural traits, in turn, led to the evolution of complementary linguistic traits, which made it possible for humans to spread and pass down their culture over the generations.
I’m sure there are other and probably even better ways to reword the original sentence, but hopefully, this gives you an idea of how plain language might work in academia.
It’s not about ‘dumbing down’ your writing; it’s about tailoring it to your audience in a way that they can understand what you are saying.
Top principles for plain language
Here’s a list of easy tips to help you write plain language, from the US National Archives:
Plain language is clear, concise, organized, and appropriate for the intended audience.
Source: Open Government at the National Archives
- Write for your reader, not yourself.
- Use pronouns when you can.
- State your major point(s) first before going into details.
- Stick to your topic.
- Limit each paragraph to one idea and keep it short.
- Write in active voice. Use the passive voice only in rare cases.
- Use short sentences as much as possible.
- Use everyday words. If you must use technical terms, explain them on the first reference.
- Omit unneeded words.
- Keep the subject and verb close together.
- Use headings, lists, and tables to make reading easier.
- Proofread your work, and have a colleague proof it as well.
Plain language resources 2
There are great resources out there to help you write in plain language. Here are some to get you started–and the rest is practice 🙂
- What Is Plain Language? (Plain Language Association International): Five things to consider when drafting a plain-language document.
- Five Steps to Plain Language (Center for Plain Language): Similar to the above but slightly more detailed: five steps to help you develop plain-language content.
- NARA Style Guide (National Archives): A significant portion of this style guide gives clear guidance on how to write in plain language. (Link directly opens PDF.)
- Plain Writing Checklist (National Archives): A quick checklist to make sure you’ve followed the plain-language guidelines. (You can download a PDF from the page.)
- US Federal Plain Language Guidelines (US Government): Provides detailed steps on how to write plain language. You can explore each section online or download the entire PDF.
☘ Plain language in academia
- “The Needless Complexity of Academic Writing,” Victoria Clayton, The Atlantic (26 October 2015): An engaging take on why academic writing tends to be more complex than necessary and the movement to change that.
- “Consequences of Erudite Vernacular Utilized Irrespective of Necessity: Problems with Using Long Words Needlessly,” Daniel M. Oppenheimer, Applied Cognitive Psychology 20: 139–156 (2006): Authors of complex writing are viewed as less intelligent than those who write simply and clearly, according to this study that won Dr. Oppenheimer the Ig Nobel award.
- “Wanted: Articulate Scientists,” Lily Whiteman, Science (10 November 2000): Reasons why scientists would “win” by using plain language, including more funding and making breakthroughs better known.
- “Say What? The Benefits of Plain Language in Academia,” Sasha Im, University of Washington: A presentation that gives you–straight up–reasons why plain language is useful for academia too. (Link directly opens PDF.)
- “Why Simple Language Isn’t so Simple: The Struggle to Create Plain Language in Documentation,” Tom Johnson (27 July 2017): A thoughtful review of reasons why it’s hard for academics to write in plain language, especially when the paper introduces new terms and concepts.
- “What Is a Lay Summary?“, Jayashree Rajagopalan, Editage Insights (28 June 2019): Even if you’re not fully convinced that academic writing should use plain language, you might agree that a “lay summary”–meant for the layperson interested in your work–would be useful.
☘ Other useful sites
- Plain English Campaign:
Their plain English tools are both useful and hilarious. I particularly like the A-Z of alternative words, which gives you plain-English alternatives to words/phrases like ‘advantageous’ (use ‘useful’ or ‘helpful’ instead) and ‘by means of’ (use ‘by’), ‘due to the fact of’ (use ‘because’, ‘as’), etc. Try out the Gobbledygook generator or the football gobbledygook generator for some laughs.
I haven’t found any inexpensive and easily accessible online training on plain language writing (yet), but here are a few resources to get you started.
- NIH Plain Language Training: Focused on conveying public health information, this is a solid training to familiarize yourself with plain language principles and get some (ungraded) practice.
- Monash University: Writing Clearly, Concisely and Precisely: A brief tutorial with a few simple activities to practice applying principles of plain language.
- Plain Language Training: International Readability Centre’s introduction to plain language concepts and how to put them into practice.