Using plain language means writing in a way that your intended audiences can immediately find, understand, and use your messages and information. It’s not about “dumbing down” your message but making sure that you are communicating effectively with your target readers.
Plain language is relevant, even (especially?) for academic and professional writing. There are great resources out there to help you write in plain language. Here are some to get you started — and the rest is practice 🙂
- What Is Plain Language? (Plain Language Association International): Five things to consider when drafting a plain-language document.
- Five Steps to Plain Language (Center for Plain Language): Similar to the above but slightly more detailed: five steps to help you develop plain-language content.
- NARA Style Guide (National Archives): A significant portion of this style guide gives clear guidance on how to write in plain language. (Link directly opens PDF.)
- Plain Writing Checklist (National Archives): A quick checklist to make sure you’ve followed the plain-language guidelines. (You can download a PDF from the page.)
- US Federal Plain Language Guidelines (US Government): Provides detailed steps on how to write plain language. You can explore each section online or download the entire PDF.
- A Plain English Handbook (US Securities and Exchange Commission, 1998): A thorough and attractive book that practices what it preaches! I especially like that it discusses design as an important part of plain language. (Link goes straight to the PDF.)
☘ Plain language in academia
- “The Needless Complexity of Academic Writing,” Victoria Clayton, The Atlantic (26 October 2015): An engaging take on why academic writing tends to be more complex than necessary and the movement to change that.
- “Consequences of Erudite Vernacular Utilized Irrespective of Necessity: Problems with Using Long Words Needlessly,” Daniel M. Oppenheimer, Applied Cognitive Psychology 20: 139–156 (2006): Authors of complex writing are viewed as less intelligent than those who write simply and clearly, according to this study that won Dr. Oppenheimer the Ig Nobel award.
- “Wanted: Articulate Scientists,” Lily Whiteman, Science (10 November 2000): Reasons why scientists would “win” by using plain language, including more funding and making breakthroughs better known.
- “Say What? The Benefits of Plain Language in Academia,” Sasha Im, University of Washington: A presentation that gives you–straight up–reasons why plain language is useful for academia too. (Link directly opens PDF.)
- “Why Simple Language Isn’t so Simple: The Struggle to Create Plain Language in Documentation,” Tom Johnson (27 July 2017): A thoughtful review of reasons why it’s hard for academics to write in plain language, especially when the paper introduces new terms and concepts.
- “What Is a Lay Summary?“, Jayashree Rajagopalan, Editage Insights (28 June 2019): Even if you’re not fully convinced that academic writing should use plain language, you might agree that a “lay summary”–meant for the layperson interested in your work–would be useful.
☘ Other useful sites
- Plain English Campaign:
Their plain English tools are both useful and hilarious. I particularly like the A-Z of alternative words, which gives you plain-English alternatives to words/phrases like “advantageous” (use “useful” or “helpful” instead) and “by means of” (use “by”), “due to the fact of” (use “because,” “as”), etc. Try out the Gobbledygook generator or the football gobbledygook generator for some laughs.
I haven’t found any inexpensive and easily accessible online training on plain language writing (yet), but here are a few resources to get you started.
- PlainLanguage.gov: The US government offers links to videos and other resources that anyone can learn from.
- NIH Plain Language Training: Focused on conveying public health information, this is a solid online training to familiarize yourself with plain language principles and get some (ungraded) practice.
- Monash University: Writing Clearly, Concisely and Precisely: A brief tutorial with a few simple activities to practice applying principles of plain language.
- Plain Language Training: International Readability Centre’s introduction to plain language concepts and how to put them into practice.